Eastern Medicine Essentials
Combative: Tai Chi pugilist methods and how to train a fighter
Q: Can you Talk about Zhong ding?
A: Zhong ding is central equilibrium in Taijiquan. What are we centering with? We are centering with the ‘Taiji pole’ that runs through the body from the top of the head at ‘bai hui’, through ‘hui yin’, down to ‘yongquan’ point in the soles of feet. When I was in college I heard a teacher at a karate studio was teaching Wu style Taijiquan. From reading many books on Taijiquan, I had gotten to be familiar with stories that the Wu family got certain attributes and training from the Yang family that the Yang family no longer taught as much. Like I always felt Wu style was the small circle taiji of the Yangs they got from Yang Banhou. Wu Quanyu was said to have gotten the ‘Neutralizing skill” from Yang Luchan. The class had a very interesting warm-up that was very relaxing, developed qi sensitivity, and worked with “zhong ding” like no other I have learned from any other Taiji school. (And I’ve been around the block to several taiji schools up and down the east coast.) Online I called this “Zhong ding gong” and now I hear and see several people use this phrase online, without knowing the actual methods and skills I learned from this Wu style teacher Odessa Brooks. The only other method that comes close to Zhong Ding Gong, is a Crane set of qigong from Huashan another teacher of mine Wilson Pitts taught, but only two of the crane exercises is similar to the Wu set that has a half dozen or so exercises. So Zhong ding training is part of our basics or jibengong. Jibengong is a word I pulled from Wushu’s modern Taijiquan training. Every traditionalist hates the word “wushu” as it is associated by silk pajama acrobatic martial arts. However it is funny that since I mentioned Jibengong on forums, now the traditional taiji people use it in marketing.
Q: Lots of confusion online when people talk about Yi (Intention) Jin (force), Jing (Essence), Shen (spirit), and Qi (vital energy) which ones are talked about in Yang Taijiquan?
A: This is another problem in the Taijiquan community. Lot of buzz words being thrown around and people talking like high level experts cause they know some Chinese words. The trinity in Taijiquan is Jing-Qi-shen. Jing is essence we get from parents, seminal essence in men, and ovary essence in women. Jing is a building block of Yuan source qi of Kidneys. We can say this is our hormones, each cell in body needs hormones and nutrition, this helps maintain function, Qi we get from food and air, maintains our vitals in the body like heartbeat, respiration, blood pressure, nerve impulses, and more, shen is mind and spirit. Jing is like a foundation for a house, Qi is the framework, and Shen the roof. Jin is force, that which we cultivate from practice. There are many types of Jin, but primarily it is force guided through the entire body and structure by refined postures. Yi is intention or intelligence, it can lead and guide force. Another aspect not talked about is Zhi or will power. Another aspect not talked about in Taiji groups.
Q: Taiji Chin na, how is it trained or is Taiji more Anti-Chin na?
A: Well in some of the schools I attended Qin-na was trained as either application training or from push hands. Grappling and throws can be considered a kind of Qin-na as well. Each posture has strikes, elbows, shoulder bumps, peng, lu, ji, an, tsai, li, etc. in them. One drill I liked a few teachers taught is the wide array of joint manipulations you can do from Ji or press. Anti-qina is something one of my teachers mention. You have to be able to escape holds and know how to counter holds.
Q: Did you learn striking in Taijiquan?
A: Only from “Taiji boxers”… people who taught taijiquan with taiji san shou, could fight, and had fight records. There is a huge denial in many Taijiquan folks who do not believe in striking or short fajin power. They think too much in terms of Tui shou or ‘push hands” as a mean to an end. This is severely incorrect. Striking training as I have been taught consists of fist strikes, open palm strikes, hammer fists, and angular strikes. In 2010 when I was at United States Wushu Academy taking Yang Taijiquan and San Shou courses, coach Christopher Pei taught in the Yang Taijiquan class, “Da shou” striking. He says it came from Yang Zhenji who learned it from Yang Shouzhong. There were 5 partner sensitivity drills that look very similar to wing chun or Filipino arm trapping drills. The Da Shou is a buzz word now, you now see on youtube by many “experts” , but is not the right Da shou people have now been showing. Some do push hands and add striking, and others show striking with people flying backwards in a woo-woo way. I feel I helped revitalized Da Shou to the public as a lost art that was practiced before they made it simpler and safer for people as Tui shou, aka push hands. There is a group in Beijing that trains in the Da shou striking of Yang Taijiquan. My videos online however I must admit are pretty weak as I tried to show it as a demo with people just learning them so the flow is not excellent. Also when it comes to the world of fighting, Da shou will be a no nonsense quickly hurt your opponent type counter attack and not a flow drill. The “song of push hands” is really called “Song of the striking hands” in the Taiji classics.
Q: The net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by the acceleration of the object.. How is this related to Taijiquan power?
A: Newton’s Second Law describes Taijiquan pretty well. People need to train with and be familiar with hard force, not just soft all the time. I don’t believe in this double soft approach to Taijiquan training that was simplified by Cheng Man Ching. I think it did real harm to Taijiquan and “defanged the snake” so-to-speak. It is really odd cause I know some really great Cheng Man ching Taijiquan push hands champions from NY and they clearly know and understand you have to work with real pressure. They were aware of hard forces used in competitive push hands competitions and were able to win events by neutralizing and countering the opponent. The non-competitive Taiji folks who criticize those event as “Sumo” really have no clue and are living in a fantasy taiji land.
Q: Where is the power coming from in Taijiquan? Is it from structure?
A: I honestly think it comes from the ground. The structure is just a conduit to the force coming at you and proper structure allows it to sink and rebound back. Of course the feet, legs, kua, yao, waist, spine, body, qi, and sensitivity play into all of it as well. I’m not a show boater video guy, I do honest videos where I get pushed, and of course I push back. Nobody is infallible no matter how much they BS with videos. Of course you have to be very well aware of the videos of guys who lightly control guys who are there students or non-taiji people. Videos can be edited to make someone look really good at power and structure. Often these guys do not compete, have an exclusive circle or clan, and don’t go out of their niche. Anytime someone wants to test them, it is nearly impossible to do so. I think it all has to do with income and not losing the “rice bowl”. Buyer beware.
Q: Conditioning: what are the methods you have learned to condition the body from incoming strikes?
A: Get used to getting hit in sparring is #1. I’ve been taught drills to get used to getting hit. You have to get comfortable with it. Of course you can empty a opponent strike by not letting it hit you first. Stepping out of range is one. Eventually you will get hit in the action “inside the pocket”. That is the connecting range. Also I’ve been taught by Yang style teachers that had hitting drills with partner and self. For example “Pai Dai gong” or self-hitting was used as a warm-down after practice to “pack” qi into the tendons, muscles, and bones. There were several two man hitting exercise we did that are similar to those used in other martial systems. Neigong is another critical and internal method that has to be carefully cultivated and employed.
Q: Tui shou/push hands: What is the purpose of Tui shou?
A: Know yourself and opponent. Stick-adhere-neutralize-follow is part of it but “da” and “fa” are as well. Learning to use soft and hard force at varying degrees: soft, soft with some hard, hard with some soft, hard all have to be dealt with. It is a sensitivity drill that has now been taught as the means to an end. Really you just have people really good at Tui shou and only able to beat other Tui shou people, but rarely can take it to another martial artist. A good reason why I respect guys who do Tui shou and test it against Brazilian jujitusu guys. Know your limits to Tui shou.
Q: On fighting: How does a Taijiquan fighter “bridge the gap” with a truly resisting opponent?
A: Da Shou is a method, but some of the prerequisite drills to free sparring san shou help. For instance Da Lu is a way to “bridge that gap” as well as the Da shou training. Free sparring San Shou is the best way to employ both Da Lu and Da Shou. One of my fighting teachers taught strike-bridge-finish, but it is not always that simple especially with someone in a fight event trying to knock you out. That is a whole other ball game by the way. Fighting events are legal ways to test your ability and they go a long way in improving your skill. Being able to fight under adrenaline dump and fast paced situation is not easy. It is so easy to sit in a chair and critique a fighter if you never fought on stage, but there is nothing in the world like it, so their opinions are null.
Q: MMA (Mixed martial arts) now dominates the martial arts world since 1993 with the emergence of the UFC (Ultimate fighting championship). Can you mix other styles with Taijiquan?
A: Many fighting arts share the same movements. I call this ‘Universal fighting principles”. There is only so many ways a person can throw a punch, kick, grapple, etc. Taijiquan teaches striking in very unique way different from other arts as we pay close attention to detail on how we move inside. So a Taiji punch is not really a normal punch, but really it is has to be trained with real resistance and pressure. To be a good fighter you have to do fighter things. Top champions don’t do standing forms and rounds of Taijiquan form. They do sparring, bag hitting, mitt hitting, running, cardio, strength training, etc. Taijiquan fits in there as a recovery art to not over train and over tax the body. Boxing shares the most principles in regards to mixing styles. They just say things in a different way. They both say relax, and train to control breathing, use of foot, leg, waist in transfer of power. I’ve mentioned many similarities of both arts on forums in the past.
A: Taijiquan is a dynamic qigong that has martial arts applications, but not all qigongs have a martial arts component. Taijiquan and its neigong component are very profound in cultivating and circulating qi in the 8 extraordinary vessels and 12 channels talked about in Chinese Medicine. What they all have in common: Taijiquan, qigong, neigong is “Dan tien” which is a great starting point for anyone interesting in the health aspect of Taijiquan.
Elbow, Wrist, Fingers: Tennis Elbow, Golfer’s Elbow, etc.
Cupping: use of negative pressure
Continuous needle stimulation with Electroacupuncture
Warm-up: long pole: thrusts
What to know about Yang Taijiquan: Info
Push Hands- some basic patterns.
All these guys have won championships in one way or another. I’ve competed but usually got second place. I test some of my pushing with them. Though I took a lot of pushes, I’m seeing some of the things that worked for me. Many teachers will not put themselves out there in free pushing against a high level person. They will lose face. They tend to show only beating their students and other silly demos not under pressure and many are suspect. No showboating here, just testing under duress.
Matt Full Contact fighting:
Yang Taijiquan’s Top representatives:
Fu Sheng Yuan- 5th generation, is son of Fu Zhongwen and heir of Authentic Yang style.
Yang Jun– is 6th generation and works tirelessly to bring about good Taijiquan, coordinates Tai Chi symposium with masters from Chen, Yang, Wu, Hao, and Sun style Taijiquan masters.
James Fu- is 6th generation master and son of Fu Sheng Yuan.
Dong/Tung Family: very close and long time practitioners of Yang Taijiquan. This family teaches internationally.
Dong Zhen Chen in Hawaii
Tung Kai Ying and Tung Chen Wei in California L.A. area.
Alex Dong is in New York city.
A brief list of some masters and experts that teach Yang Taijiquan that we recommend. You may also find a more complete list with Yang family at:
Yang Family Website
Cheng Man Ching style Taijiquan:
William CC ChenWorld class instructor, fighter, teacher.
Ben Lo- one of Cheng Man Ching’s top disciples. no link available. Mostly retired these days.
Cheng-Man-Ching Taijiquan (CMC)
While we are aware there are many teachers of this style, here is a list of folks who teach and have competed in push hands and san shou fighting events and are also teachers.
William CC Chen instructors
There is a large group of teachers in Malaysia. Many more are listed in Nigel Sutton’s books. Malaysia was influenced by Huang Xian Xiong/Hwang Shen Shyan, a white crane master who became a disciple of Cheng Man Ching.
A young Fu Zhongwen with Yang Chenfu
Fu Zhongwen was a chief inheritor of Yang Chenfu’s Taijiquan. He was one of the closest disciples, a lineage-holder, and in-law to the Yang Family. He spent his earlier days in Guang Fu town as neighbor and student of Yang Banhou’s son, Yang Zhaopen in Yongnian county. He was sent to Shanghai to help with efforts there and become disciple to Yang Chenfu. Some of his training brothers included Chen Weiming, Cui Yishi, Niu Chimming, Li Yashuen, Chu Guiting, and Tian Zhaolin.
Opening words by Fu Zhongwen: Origin Taiji is One style.
On Yang Luchan taking a fight:
On the various generations and Learning the Authentic and Original Taiji:
Persevere through practice: as a martial art, for health: spine, stomach, sleep, fighting disease like cancer:
Words of encouragment
Fu Shengyuan passed away this year. Slantedflying.com wrote a nice detailed piece here. Though I was not a direct student of him, I was part of the 50th anniversary of the Yongnian Association in Shanghai China in 1994. There we did train in long form, single push hands, rou shou, double hand push hands, moving step push hands, and Da Lu. It was a very friendly and open experience, the complete opposite of what I had experienced in America with many of the secretive 3rd generation proponents of Cheng Man Ching. Overall, I was very blessed by the eye opening experience. People were asked to come up and speak. I spoke on how important it would benefit Americans to have more martial arts like Taijiquan introduced into public schools at a younger age to improve health, encourage sports, and other extracurricular activities.
Fu Zhongwen form
Taiji ‘One Family’ commentary on Yang Taijiquan in Shanghai China.
You can read the unofficial edition here: Yang Taiji One Family across the straits.
Before 1949: Fu Zhongwen started Yongnian Taijiquan Association in 1944.
last update 9/12/2017
Western Medicine Terminology: know over 600 terms.
Digestive system, Urinary system, Reproductive system, Nervous System, Cardiovascular system, Respiratory system,
Hematology, Lymphatic and Immune system, musculoskeletal system, Integumentary (Skin) system, sense organs, Endocrine system, Oncology, Radiology, Pharmacology, and Psychiatry.
Chemicals: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen. Body is 97% Carbon
Cellular: Protein- muscle (amino acids), Carbohydrate (gloucose)- everything, Lipid- fatty acid.
Amino acid and Glucose: from blood to capillaries into cell.
Lysosomes- from carbohydrate in cell (old protein, old lipid).
Mitochondria- independent, new DNA, different from nucleus.
Glucose- from carbohydrate (long chain) that goes to mitochondria to create energy ATP. Mitochondria is the power plant.
Diffusion- from high concentrate to low concentrate.
Filtration- high pressure to low pressure
Osmosis- low to high concentration. Solvent. No solution.
Phagocytosis- white blood cell eat pathogen
Anabolism- get fat (save energy)
Catabloism- food to create energy (spend).
Tissue is a group of specialized cells.
1. Epithelial- outside, lining of respiratory and digestion.
70% of body is muscles connective tissue- blood.
Areolar- fascia, muscle membrane
Reticular- framework that keeps organs in place.
Dense- ligaments and tendons.
Spongy- bone marrow
Hyaline Cartilage- end of bones
Elastic- nose, ears
Fibrocartliage- tensile like the discs in vertabre.
Blood, Lymph- blood is RBC w/iron and O2. Lymph is blood without RBC.
Skeletal- moves bones voluntary
Cardiac- heart beat involuntary
Smooth- GI tract. Stomach 3 layers, LI- 2 layers- involuntary.
Circulatory system: cardiovascular and lymphatic.
Healthy cell vs sick cell- urinary expel.
Hypothalamus-> pituitary gland-> hormones to blood vessels-> target cells -> function.
Hypertension/hypotension: high/low hormone amount.
Body has ability to heal and repair self if not diseased. East- harmonize yin/yang. West- fix if broken.
Epithelial tissue (3) Cutaneous- skin covering. Mucous- lining outside. Serous- smaller sacs.
Serous (3 types): pleural- lung. Pericardium- heart. Peritoneum- abdominal membrane.
Synovial- joints and spine.
Mid-sagittal- left and right
Frontal/coronal- side cut
Transverse/horizontal- half cut
Muscle- builds heat, movement, contains blood vessels, most blood in body. Shiver to survive.
Synovial membrane- create the fluid, more fluid means more cartilage.
Doral cavity is both cranial and spinal cavity.
Ventral cavity- front
Thoracic cavity- heart, lung, anterior cavity.
Diaphragm- flat muscle, moving up and down.
Abdominpelvic cavity- digestive system.
Superior, cranial, cephalic- top
Inferior, caudal- lower, tail.
Dorsal- posterior, back.
Ipsilateral, homolateral- same side
Contralateral- opposite side
Proximal- closer to body
Distal- farther from body
Deep, central- inside, center.
Otic/auricular- of the ear
Mandible- lower jaw
Cervical- neck joints
Nuchal- posterior neck
Mediastinal- middle of sternal bone
Pectoral- chest, mammary- breast.
Inguinal- hip joint crease
Gluteal- hip, seat
Axillary- arm pit
Brachial- upper arm
Cubital- around elbow
Antecubital- inner part of elbow
Palmar, volar- palm
Hypothenar- little finger side
Femoral- upper thigh
Popliteal- behind knee
Cural- leg (after knee, before ankle)
Sural, Calf- behind leg.
Dorsum- top of foot
Plantar, volar- bottom foot
Calcaneal- heel bone, calcaneous.
Digital phalangeal- toes
Hallux- big toe.
Fascicle- unit of muscles, bundle of fibers
Muscle fiber- muscle cell, a fiber within the fascicle.
Myofiliments- filaments that make up the muscle fiber: actin (thin) mosin (thick).
Sarcolemma- cell membrane
Sarcoplasmic reticulum- protein
Actin- thin myofiliment
Myosin- thick myofiliments
Motor neuron- moves to brain for muscle movement.
Sliding filament mechanism- actin and myosin sliding to contraction.
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)- mitochondria w/ o2 and gloucose
Excitability- contract muscle
Extensibility- extend out, opposite contractability
Elasticity- healthy flexible muscle.
ATP causes myosin and actin to contract and pull muscles.
Convergent- thick flat tendon
Spiral- like in shoulder muscles
Circular- eye and mouth muscles
Pennate: leaf shape, muscles combining.
Agonist- prime mover
Antagonist- opposite of agonist. Example: bicep to flex arm (agonist), tricep (antagonist) to extend arm.
Synergist- helps a muscle
Fixator- keeps muscle still.
Origin- start of muscle
Insertion- finish, attach to bone.
Isometric- anti-lift (controlled lowering) example: hold baby- isotonic, put baby to bed- isometric.
Lever system- load (resistance), pull (force), fulcrum (fixed point).
Proprioceptor (2)- muscle spindle- inside muscle belly, and golgi tendon organs: inside tendon.
Palatine tonsil- catches pathogens
Epiglottis- covers air and esophagus tube
Bronchi- branches in lungs
Bronchioles- smaller branches
Vomer- divides left and right in nose.
Turdinate conchae- lateral nasal bones
Cilia- hair like projections in lungs
Sinus- air cavities, create resonance.
External respiration and pulmonary respiration- lungs
Internal respiration- tissue/cellular level.
Tissue respiration- cellular response – mitochondira/atp.
Pulmonary ventilation- air from outside to inside
Diaphragm- pulls air in
External intercoastals- chest breathing
Heimlich- choking technique.
4 functions- ingestion- food to mouth, digestion- break down of food, absorption- nutrition, defecation- expel waste from body.
Amylase- breaks down carbs
Maltose- disaccharides (2)
Lipase- enzyme break down lipid
Triglycerides- 3 tailed lipid
Carbohydrate- make by golgi body
Mineral- small nutrient
Vitamin- bigger nutrient
Water- absord directly
Bile- produced by liver, sotred in GB,helps break down fats.
Lacteal- small intestine wall, lymphatic system
Hepatic portal vein- liver as inspector of blood before it goes to heart. Enters here first.
Parotid- salivary gland behind ear
Submandibular- cheek, under neck
Sublingual- under tongue
Stomach parts: esophagus, cardiac spinchter, fundus, body, pyloric
Rugae- wrinkles in the stomach
Small intestines: duodenum- 12 finger length, jejunum- longest part of SI 6-8 meters. Ileum- long twisted part.
Pancreas- duct for GB. Liver makes bile, Gall bladder – stores bile.
Large intestines- ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, anus.
Cecum- lower part of L.I. contains appendix.
Cardio vascular system:
Artery- big vessels
Arterioles- smaller vessels
Venules- smaller veins
Vein- large vessels
Blood- transports gases, nutrients, hormones, heat.
Blood contains: plasma, formed elents like white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets.
Erythorocytes- red blood cells (RBC).
Leukocytes- white blood cells (WBC).
Thrombocyte- coagulation (platelets as well.
AB blood type is the universal receipiant
O type- universal donar
Vena cava- largest vein in body
Right atrium to right atrioventrical valve to tricuspid valve, then to right ventricle to Lung, to pulmonary semilunar valve- to left atrium and then left atrioventricular valve. From Lung to bicuspid valve, mitral valve- to left ventricle to aortic semilunar valve- aorta to body.
Pericardium surround heart
Epicardium is under pericardium.
Coronary vessel- blood for hearts survival
Myocardium- cardiac muscle
Heart muscle- myocardium
Endocardium- lining of heart
Papillary muscles- endocardium surrounded by papillary muscles.
Pulmonary circuit- to and from the lung.
Systemic circuit- away from heart to body and returns to heart.
Left ventricle problem: aorta
Right ventricle problem- vena cava, liver.
3 important: heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output.
Hypertension/HBP: 1. Blood speed. 2. Blood volume. 3. Blood vessel condition (can’t contain blood).
Heart Rate- BPM
Stroke volume- volume left output
Cardiac output: left ventricle per minute.
Heart conduction system: sinoatrial node- sa node- right atrium.
Atrioventricular node/AV node-between ‘Bundle of his’ nerves, between right and left chambers.
2 branches: left side of heart ‘purkinje fibers. And left side of heart. Contract right and left muscles of the heart.
Nerves control muscles- motion with skeleton
Hemiporisis- making blood
Blood cell formation: WBC, RBC, platlet, marrow.
206 bones in body
Periosteum, Sartorius- longest muscle, femour- longest bone.
If something happens to bone marrow: big problem for Liver and spleen.
Diaphasis: shaft of bone
Epiphysis- towards end of bone.
Periostrium- surrounding bone.
Blood vessels inside the bone, cell division, more blood cells.
Haverson canals- longitudinal vessels
Volmans canals- bone to other parts- horizontal.
Mediullary cavity: fat
Mediphysis- middle between diaphysis and epiphisis
Osteoblast- baby bone cell
Osteocyte- adult bone cell
Osteoclast- bone destroying cell.
Parathyroid- horomone released to add calcium to bone.
Exoskeleton: vertebrae: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, sacrum, coccyx. Shoulder girdle: 2 clavical and 2 scapular.
Process- general prominence
Tuberosity- tubercle, condyle, head.
Fossa, notch (v form), groove – valley, sinus- hollow, meatus- tube, foramen- hole.
Kidney- filter blood, renal artery.
Ureters- tubes from kidney
Urinary bladderis the bladder.
Urethra- tube from bladder to sex organ.
Homeostasis- ph balance acidic below 7/alkaline 7.1 -7.4
Stomach acid- ph 2, Clorox- ph 14.
Acid is released in urine.
Afferent arteriole- small branch of renal artery to glomerulus.
Glomerulus- betweent he two, urine created.
Efferent arteriole- exit to arteries of kidney from glomerulus.
Peritubular capillaries- capillary level.
Renal venule- small vein.
Renal vein- bigger vein.
Inferior vena cava- vena cava to heart.
Bowman capsule- contains glomerulus 2-3 million.
Renal tuble- drainage of glomerulus to collecting duct, collecting duct to renal papilla to minor calyx to major calyx- to renal pelvis.
Tubular reabsorption- reabsorption of wter, so do not go every 5 min.
Nephron- basic unit of kidney function
Renal corpuscle- nephrons
Peristalisis- one way direction
Rugae- flexible cells like ST, GB, UB.
Trigone- 2 ureters and 1 urethra.
Internal sphincter- involuntary
External sphincter- voluntary
Micturition- urination, opening of external sphincter.
Gonads: ovaries, testes
Gametes- sperm, egg
Testis- create sperm
Epididymis- where sperm grow
Vas defens- spermatic ducts
Ejaculatory ducts- seminal vesicles to prostate.
Sperm- alkaline in seminal vesicles, sperm ejaculatory duct to prostate, bulbourethral to – protective chemical.
Progesterone, estrogen, relaxin, Inhibin- hormones
Fallopian tubes- oviducts
Uterus- 3 layers: endometrium is outer, Myometrium- muscle/uterus muscle, perimerium is inner.
Vagina contains rugae. Bartholin glands lubricate vagina
Vulva- outer side
Mon pubic- cushion of pubic symphysis. Labia majora, labia minor, clitoris.
Integementary system: Skin
Epidermis- no blood
Dermis- blood (true skin)
Hypodermis- muscle, fat, fascia level.
Skin- largest organ
Liver- largest internal organ Circulatory system includes both cardiovascular system and lymphatic system. Skin is actually part of nervous system.
Brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, spinal fluid, CSF in the meninges. Sense organs, neurotransmitters: from brain to involve muscles.
Sensory input: from sense organs to spinal cord the brain
Interpretive: brain answering questions.
Decision- motor output to muscles.
Mental and emotional.
Dendrite (cell body)-> spinal cord- axon.
Presynaptic to synaptic cleft (space) post synaptic
Brain: cerebrum: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital. Diencephalons: thalamus, pineal body, hypothalamus. Brain stem: midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata. Cerebellum.
Horn-columns-tracts (ascending and descending). Horn hasfront, lateral and posterior sections. Columns are the area outside the horn. Tracts are within the Horn.
Layers of spinal cord: duramater, arachnoid, Pia matter.
Cerebral spinal fluid is in the subarachnoid space.
Stomach: 3 to 5 day cells
After 18 years old: heart and nerve cells cannot rebuild.
Hair cells: everyday
Stem cells: can rebuild
Epidural space: where the ‘epidural shot” is placed.
Use on patient: Dermatomes: sensory input test at skin level.
Myotomes: motor output control test. Muscle test.
Exocrine glands release hormones, hormones are the chemical messengers. Many hormones start in the hypothalamus. Pituitary gland is below hypothalamus. Pineal gland is in the brain as well and uses melatonin. Thyroid and parathyroid is in the throat, thymus between heart and sternum, adrenals on top of kidneys, pancreatic islets- for digestion/ insulin. Ovaries and testes in female and male.
TSH- thyroid stimulating hormone
ACTH- adrenocorticotropic hormone.
GH- growth hormone
FSH- follicle stimulating hormone
LH- luteinizing hormone
ADH- anti diuretic hormone
MSH- melanocyte stimulating hormone.
Lymph, lymph vessels, lymph glands, lymphatic organs, lymph node, lymphphocytes (WBC)
Smallest to largest: lymph capillary- lymph vessels, lymph trunk, lymph ducts, right lymph duct (right side), thoracic duct (left side).
WBC are created: red bone marrow, thymus, spleen
MALT: mucosal associated lymphoid tissue: mouth to anus mucous membrane.
Peyer;s patch in small intestines, illium has WBC
Veriform appendix of large intestines has WBC.
End of Medical terminology
–Begin Anatomy Physiology–
To be continued…..
12/5/2017 Western Medical Diagnostic tests:
Head and Neck: